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recomended powder factor mining

The Powder Factor Dilemma - iRing

However, in underground mining operations the preference is to define powder factor as the weight of explosive required per unit of weight of rock to fragment either a metric tonne or an imperial pound of solid material. Thus, the units become lb/ton for imperial and kg/tonne for metric.

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Evaluating the effectiveness of powder factor - Pit ...

12/06/2019  Powder factor is flawed for various reasons. The first is that no standard powder factor exists for specific rock types. Studies completed in Russia as far back as the 1950s showed that no specific powder factor is suitable for a specific rock – even in a homogenous state.

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Chapter 8 BLAST DESIGN - National Park Service

Powder Factor = Tons of rock (or cubic yards) per pounds of explosive. Normal range = 4 to 7 Shallow holes = 1 to 2 External loads =.3 Tons of Rock = Powder Factor lbs of Explosives The higher the powder factor, the lighter the load. Lower powder factor means more explosives. Example: 1.5

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literature review of powder factor in mining

The powder factor in NCL, BCCL, SECL, ECL, WCL and West Bokaro Collieries was in range of the optimum powder factor and quality of explosives was measured The rating index of bulk explosives is varied in between 70 and 100 The powder factor in hard rock was 15 to 25m3/kg and in soft rock it was in range of 20to 3m3/kg. Chat Now; Selection of Powder Factor in Large-Diameter Blast Holes ...

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(PDF) ASSESSMENT OF POWDER FACTOR IN SURFACE BENCH ...

There is a term optimum powder factor, which may be defined as the powder factor required for the optimum The quantity of explosive required to fragment 1 m3 or 1 fragmentation, throw, ground vibration, etc. for a specified tonne of rock is known as powder factor [2]. It can serve a blast condition to minimize the overall mining cost. Presently, variety of purposes, such as an indicator of ...

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Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting ...

01/04/2016  Powder factor is the ratio between the amount of rock broken and total weight of explosive consumed. It is an important parameter in blast design and has a vital influence on the resultant fragmentation. Higher powder factor causes oversize and lower powder factor results in crushed rock. Mean fragment size was plotted against the powder factor for 91 blasts of coal overlying overburden ...

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Powder Factor McCallum Rock Drilling

16/07/2018  Powder factor is expressed in many different forms. Essentially it is a measurement of explosives per quantity of rock. The typical variation of this that we use on a daily basis is how many pounds of explosives per cubic yard of rock. This gives us a baseline of how we need to go about fragmenting rock for each particular application. A baseline for powder factor or a standard number ...

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Evaluating the effectiveness of powder factor - Pit ...

12/06/2019  Powder factor is a design methodology rooted in the idea that a set number of pounds of explosives per cubic yard (or ton) of rock will give specific desired blast results. This technique was invented in the 1600s in order to design blasts utilizing black powder that would cause breakage to Gypsumers of benches utilizing cratering assumptions, where the burden and spacing of charges are

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literature review of powder factor in mining

The powder factor in NCL, BCCL, SECL, ECL, WCL and West Bokaro Collieries was in range of the optimum powder factor and quality of explosives was measured The rating index of bulk explosives is varied in between 70 and 100 The powder factor in hard rock was 15 to 25m3/kg and in soft rock it was in range of 20to 3m3/kg. Chat Now; Selection of Powder Factor in Large-Diameter Blast Holes ...

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Study on optimum powder factor and quality of explosives ...

Bulk explosives, booster and blast design play an important role in rock blasting. Bulk explosives are booster sensitive explosives. The firing density is in range of 1.05 to 1.20/cm3. The velocity of detonation and absolute weight strength (AWS) is in range of 3500 to 4500m/s and 800 to 850kcal/kg. Powder factor is an important economic index for assessment of blastabiliy of rock.

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Journal of Powder Metallurgy and Mining- Open Access Journals

Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered materials, pressing them into a desired shape or form and then heating the compressed material in a controlled atmosphere to bond the material. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam.

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(PDF) Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d ...

PDF On Sep 16, 2007, Hossein Nezamabadi-pour and others published Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d Blast Pattern Design Using Artificial Neural Network (Case Study: Gol-e

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Powder Factor Solutions

Powder Factor Solutions is a specialist drill blast design team based in Western Australia serving our global customers through cloud-based technologies. Utilising cutting edge modelling algorithms; which extend and expand on current industry best-practice; PFS supports your team to deliver optimal rock fragmentation across your entire mining operation. OmniOre helps you drill, blast, adjust ...

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H BLASTING IN SURFACE EXCAVATION - Mining and Blasting

The above definition is best described by the Figure 1. 3 Figure 1: Surface blasting terminology ... Table 1 is a guide to the powder factor for a given type of explosive in various types of rock. 6 Table 1: Guide to powder factors and rock factors for various rock types General Category Rock type Powder factor (kg/m3) Rock factor A Hard (+200) Andesite Dolerite Granite Ironstone Silcrete 0.70 ...

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Explosives Engineers’ Guide - Dyno Nobel

Powder factor = 0.5kg per square metre of face Do not stem holes. Fire all holes on the same delay, or in groups of ≥ 5 holes Smooth blasting Spacing = 15 x Hole diameter (hard rock) 20 x Hole diameter (soft rock) Burden = 1.25 x Spacing Fire as many holes as possible on one delay. Stem holes. Powder factors Typical powder factors Rules of thumb used in mass blasts Rock type 3PF (kg/m) Hard ...

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Powder FactorDetonator FactorBlasting EngineeringMINING ...

23/06/2020  In this video i discussed about powder factor and detonator factor from the video you can know What is PF and DF ? PF and DF depends on which factor

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Powder Factor Selection for Improved Rock Fragmentation at ...

Mining Engineering Department, University of Mines and Technology . Eme, P., Alhassan, S. and Amankwah, R. K. (2018), ... effect on shovelloading time and volume of ore hauled were recorded to know the best powder factor that should be used in blasting at AngloGold Ashanti Iduapriem Mine CUT 4 A-Zone pit. For shovel loading time, PF 0.72, PF 0.88 and PF 0.96 had a total number of 87,109 and

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ASSESSMENT OF POWDER FACTOR IN SURFACE BENCH BLASTI

powder factor. There is a term optimum powder factor, which may be defined as the powder factor required for the optimum fragmentation, throw, ground vibration, etc. for a specified blast condition to minimize the overall mining cost. Presently, the powder factor is established through the trial blasts.

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Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting ...

01/04/2016  Powder factor is the ratio between the amount of rock broken and total weight of explosive consumed. It is an important parameter in blast design and has a vital influence on the resultant fragmentation. Higher powder factor causes oversize and lower powder factor results in crushed rock. Mean fragment size was plotted against the powder factor for 91 blasts of coal overlying overburden ...

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Powder FactorDetonator FactorBlasting EngineeringMINING ...

23/06/2020  In this video i discussed about powder factor and detonator factor from the video you can know What is PF and DF ? PF and DF depends on which factor's..? Indian coal mine's PF and DF are varies in ...

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Powder factor , Detonator Factor , Coal Production ...

08/05/2020  Dear students in this lecture we will learn to calculate powder factor , detonator factor and coal production in bord pillar ,longwall mining. With basic c...

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(PDF) ROCK BLASTING FOR MINING - ResearchGate

Powder factor can be expressed as a quantity of rock broken by a unit weight of explosiv es. Or, Or, alternatively, it can be the amount of exp losives required to break a unit measure of ro ck.

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Assessment of powder factor in surface bench blasting by ...

1.1 Powder Factor The quantity of explosive required to fragment 1 m3 or 1 tonne of rock is known as powder factor [2]. It can serve a variety of purposes, such as an indicator of hardness of the ...

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Blasting Techniques Used in Underground and Opencast Mines ...

Powder factor with solid blasting is 1.5 to 2.5 te of coal per kg of explosive and 0.8 to 1.25 te of coal per detonator. DGMS stipulations on maximum permissible charge in a shot-pole, delay interval, etc. in u/ g coal mines. I. Explosives: II. Delay Detonators: (a) While using non-incendive delay detonators in ‘BOS’ applications the maximum delay period between the 1st last shot in a ...

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I UNDERGROUND BLASTING - Mining and Blasting – Weblog of ...

In mining, shafts form a system of vertically or inclined passageways, which are used for transportation of ore, refill, personnel, equipment, air, electricity, ventilation etc. In quarrying, glory holes for transportation of materials such as at Perak Hanjoong. An important requirement in shaft sinking is to provide optimum fragmentation of the rock so that it can be cleared quickly from the ...

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Powder Factor In Blasting Lime Stone Mining India

What are the benefits drawbacks of quarrying limestone 1/8/2009 Best ... Read more. road construction with li_ne powder. road construction with li_ne powder « coal russian ... Dimension stone; Road ... lime powder production projects ... The XSM is the professional mining equipments ... Read more. Blue Stone Quarry Blasting In India-India CrusherMill. blue stone quarry blasting in ...

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ASSESSMENT OF POWDER FACTOR IN SURFACE BENCH BLASTI

powder factor. There is a term optimum powder factor, which may be defined as the powder factor required for the optimum fragmentation, throw, ground vibration, etc. for a specified blast condition to minimize the overall mining cost. Presently, the powder factor is established through the trial blasts.

More

literature review of powder factor in mining

The powder factor in NCL, BCCL, SECL, ECL, WCL and West Bokaro Collieries was in range of the optimum powder factor and quality of explosives was measured The rating index of bulk explosives is varied in between 70 and 100 The powder factor in hard rock was 15 to 25m3/kg and in soft rock it was in range of 20to 3m3/kg. Chat Now; Selection of Powder Factor in

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Powder Factor: The Ineffective Design Tool E MJ

Since the first application of black powder for blasting in 1627, blasters and engineers have been using powder factor as a design tool. Powder factor is the ratio of pounds of explosive used in a blast to the total volume of rock blasted; a typical range for surface blasting is 1.0 to 2.0 pounds per cubic yard (lb/yd3).

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Determining minimum burdens for quarry blasting

The use of Powder Factor in blast design The Powder Factor can be used to design the distribution of explosives in the rock mass that is to be blasted. The critical dimension is the burden distance which is the shortest distance to stress relieve when a shot-hole detonates. It is normally the distance to the free face.

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Estimation of the powder factor in bench blasting from the ...

29/11/2013  The powder factor was determined locally by reference to similar bench blasting applications to the same minerals and rocks and the results were also compared with previous findings. Finally, a relationship between the Bond work index and the powder factor was established by the application of statistical and mathematical methods, taking into account the

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Ultra-High-intensity Blasting – A new Paradigm in Mining ...

Abstract Mine-to-mill studies have previously demonstrated downstream productivity benefits from relatively modest increases in blast energy, or powder factor. These increases have up to now been limited by safety and environmental constraints, since excessive blast energy can result in flyrock, unacceptable vibration, airblast and wall damage.

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Assessment of powder factor in surface bench blasting ...

08/08/2016  There is a term optimum powder factor, which may be defined as the powder factor required for the optimum fragmentation, throw, ground vibration, etc. for a specified blast condition to minimize the overall mining cost. Presently, the powder factor is

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Optimization of Blasting Parameters in opencast Mines

Powder factor (desired), iii. Cost of explosive, iv. Numbers of holes required to blast. Methodology The study of the various parameters of blasting suggests that the powder factor should be constant as per the requirement. The number of holes desired as per the explosive, the drill i . hole diameter as available and the cost of explosive are kept as input. The spacing,

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Blasting Techniques Used in Underground and Opencast Mines ...

Powder factor with solid blasting is 1.5 to 2.5 te of coal per kg of explosive and 0.8 to 1.25 te of coal per detonator. DGMS stipulations on maximum permissible charge in a shot-pole, delay interval, etc. in u/ g coal mines.

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Breakage and fragmentation modelling ... - Mining and Blasting

The first stage of the comminution process in metalliferous mining is the breakage and fragmentation of the orebody rock mass generally by drilling and blasting techniques. This is the activity that may have the most leverage in the efficiency of a mining operation, as the output from a blast impacts on every downstream operation (Grant et al, 1995). In the case of

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